The following table describes the strength specifications for the different property classes of metric steel bolts, screws and studs:
|Property Class||Nominal Size Range (mm)||Proof Strength (MPa)||Yield Strength, min(MPa)||Tensile Strength, min(MPa)||Material|
|4.6||5-100||225||240||400||Low or medium carbon steel|
|4.8||1.6-16||310||340||420||Low or medium carbon steel; fully or partially annealed|
|5.8||5-24||380||420||520||Low or medium carbon steel; cold worked|
|8.8||Under 16 (incl.)||660||640||800||Medium carbon steel; quenched and tempered|
|8.8||17-72||580||660||830||Medium carbon steel; quenched and tempered|
|9.8||1.6-16||650||720||900||Medium carbon steel; quenched and tempered|
|10.9||5-100||830||940||1040||Alloy steel; quenched and tempered|
|12.9||1.6-100||970||1100||1220||Alloy steel; quenched and tempered|
The tensile strength or ultimate tensile strength can be defined as the maximum amount of tensile stress that a component can withstand before it fractures.
The proof strength can be defined as the maximum amount of tensile stress that a component can withstand before it begins to exhibit plastic or permanent deformation on release of the stress applied.
The yield strength can be defined as the amount of tensile stress that a component can withstand when it exhibits 0.2% plastic or permanent deformation.
The property class is normally stamped on the head of the bolt. The two figures indicate the tensile and yield strengths of the bolt or screw.
In the case of a 8.8 grade bolt the first figure signifies that the Tensile Strength is at least 800MPa. The second figure signifies that the fastener will begin to yield at 80% of the Ultimate Tensile Strength, i.e. at least 640MPa.
The following table, taken from BS EN ISO 3506, describes the strength characteristics of different grades of austenitic stainless steel bolts, screws and studs:
|Steel Grade||Property Class||Nominal Size Range (mm)||Tensile Strength, min(MPa)||0.2% Proof Stress (MPa)|
|A1,A2,A3,A4,A5||50||Under 39 (incl.)||500||210|
|70||Under 24 (incl.)||700||450|
|80||Under 24 (incl.)||800||600|
Stainless steel fasteners do not exhibit a yield stress. In this case 0.2% proof stress is used instead, and can be defined as the tensile stress required for the component to exhibit elongation of 0.2%.